Operational risk literature book reviews vs

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Learn about our use of cookies, and collaboration with select social media and trusted analytics partners here Learn more about cookies, Opens in new tab. New forces are creating new demands for operational-risk management in financial services. Breakthrough technology, increased data availability, and new business models and value chains are transforming the ways banks serve customers, interact with third parties, and operate internally.

Operational risk must keep up with this dynamic environment, including the evolving risk landscape. Legacy processes and controls have to be updated to begin with, but banks can also look upon the imperative to change as an improvement opportunity. The adoption of new technologies and the use of new data can improve operational-risk management itself.

Within reach is more targeted risk management, undertaken with greater efficiency, and truly integrated with business decision making. The advantages for financial-services firms that manage to do this are significant. Already, efforts to address the new challenges are bringing measurable bottom-line impact.

For example, one global bank tackled unacceptable false-positive rates in anti—money laundering AML detection—which were as high as 96 percent. Using machine learning to identify crucial data flaws, the bank made necessary data-quality improvements and thereby quickly eliminated an estimated 35, investigative hours. A North American bank assessed conduct-risk exposures in its retail sales force.

Strategy Reviews vs. Operational Reviews

Using advanced-analytics models to monitor behavioral patterns among 20, employees, the bank identified unwanted anomalies before they became serious problems. The cases for change are in fact diverse and compelling, but transformations can present formidable challenges for functions and their institutions. Operational risk is a relatively young field: it became an independent discipline only in the past 20 years. While banks have been aware of risks associated with operations or employee activities for a long while, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision BCBSin a series of papers published between andelevated operational risk to a distinct and controllable risk category requiring its own tools and organization.

In the first decade of building operational-risk-management capabilities, banks focused on governance, putting in place foundational elements such as loss-event reporting and risk-control self-assessments RCSAs and developing operational-risk capital models. The financial crisis precipitated a wave of regulatory fines and enforcement actions on misselling, questionable mortgage-foreclosure practices, financial crimes, London Inter-bank Offered Rate LIBOR fixing, and foreign-exchange misconduct.

As these events worked their way through the banking system, they highlighted weaknesses of earlier risk practices. Institutions responded by making significant investments in operational-risk capabilities. They developed risk taxonomies beyond the BCBS categories, put in place new risk-identification and risk-assessment processes, and created extensive controls and control-testing processes. While the industry succeeded in reducing industry-wide regulatory fines, losses from operational risk have remained elevated Exhibit 1.

While banks have made good progress, managing operational risk remains intrinsically difficult, for a number of reasons. Compared with financial risk such as credit or market risk, operational risk is more complex, involving dozens of diverse risk types. Second, operational-risk management requires oversight and transparency of almost all organizational processes and business activities. Third, the distinguishing definitions of the roles of the operational-risk function and other oversight groups—especially compliance, financial crime, cyberrisk, and IT risk—have been fluid.

Finally, until recently, operational risk was less easily measured and managed through data and recognized limits than financial risk. This last constraint has been lifted in recent years: granular data and measurement on operational processes, employee activity, customer feedback, and other sources of insight are now widely available. Measurement remains difficult, and risk teams still face challenges in bringing together diverse sources of data.

Nonetheless, data availability and the potential applications of analytics have created an opportunity to transform operational-risk detection, moving from qualitative, manual controls to data-driven, real-time monitoring. As for the other challenges, they have, if anything, steepened. Operational complexity has increased. The number and diversity of operational-risk types have enlarged, as important specialized-risk categories become more defined, including unauthorized trading, third-party risk, fraud, questionable sales practices, misconduct, new-product risk, cyberrisk, and operational resilience.

At the same time, digitization and automation have been changing the nature of work, reducing traditional human errors but creating new change-management risks; fintech partnerships create cyberrisks and produce new single points of failure; the application of machine learning and artificial intelligence AI raises issues of decision bias and ethical use of customer data. Finally, the lines between the operational-risk-management function and other second-line groups, such as compliance, continue to shift.Operational risk and control assessments are often the first process that a firm uses to conduct operational risk management.

Frequently the assessment is carried out without an operational risk management framework in place and without much thought being given to good corporate governance around the multiple interlocking processes of operational risk management.

Few now doubt the advantages of having a documented operational risk policy. It allows senior management to communicate to all staff the approach of the firm to operational risk management. As such, the policy should be approved by the Board of Directors.

operational risk literature book reviews vs

Alternatively, in some firms, the Executive or Management Committee may wish to approve the policy document or at a minimum, review and comment on it prior to Board approval. The three methods of operational risk assessment above have an increasing level of business benefit although these are balanced by an increasing level of process sophistication. In particular, a self assessment being conducted by the business itself gives the best platform for cultural change. It should be recognised that most firms will, necessarily, go through a period of cultural change whilst embedding operational risk management into the structure and decision making of the firm.

Any of the methods above can be used for risk assessment, control assessment or risk and control assessment. Commonly, firms start with an assessment of risk initially evaluating the risk after allowing for the mitigating effect of the controls.

Both stand-alone assessment methods give some value although neither gives the value that can be derived from a combined risk and control assessment. For example, there is generally very little shared assessment in control self assessments, even when the business reviews the process for the assessment of control effectiveness. By contrast, in risk and control assessments carried out by the business there is usually a natural element of co-assessment in order to ensure consistency.

There are a variety of practices that can be used to carry out any of the three methods of assessments. These include:. Workshops, which can be very effective and efficient in a firm that is open to discussion and challenge.

operational risk literature book reviews vs

However, the drawback is that a first risk and control assessment generally takes a full working day to complete and it is therefore necessary for all workshop attendees to be absent from their desks for the day. Interviews, which work very well in a firm that is used to one-to-one discussion of issues. Interviews are relatively inefficient as a certain amount of iteration is necessary in order to obtain agreement on the risks and controls. They are nevertheless effective when an entire cadre of staff cannot be spared or is not available for a full day workshop.

Questionnaires, which can be easy and quick although these generally need strong management and significant communication skills in order to achieve a cohesiveness to the wide ranging results that can be a consequence. Good design of the questions is fundamental to obtaining an outcome that has business benefits. This is often harder than it may appear as risks, control failures and indicators can easily become confused in the mind of the person answering the questionnaire.

Given the variety of views on who should perform a risk and control assessment and on what method to use to carry it out, it is not surprising that many firms unknowingly chose a sub-optimal approach.

There are a number of reasons why risk and control assessments go wrong. At a high level, these include cultural issues, administrative hurdles and value perception. As noted in previous articles, a common risk language is important for a consistent approach to operational risk management across the business. It is impossible to aggregate risks, compare risk exposures or analyse control profiles without an agreed view of common risk terms.

All three actions are typical uses of a risk and control assessment. An inconsistent quality of identification can also be a result of a lack of understanding of risk terms or alternatively it can result from a lack of application of a risk audit process to the risk and control assessment results. Another common cultural issue is the lack of support from senior management for the risk and control assessment process.

This is often characterised by a lack of attendance by senior management at risk and control assessment workshops or by sudden departures after 30 minutes or 1 hour. A further typical cultural issue is the use of operational risk management to reduce risk rather than managing it appropriately to the organisation.

Risk and control assessments are often unnecessarily paper intensive. The implementation of this type of assessment is very difficult across regions of the world and particularly across different cultures.Hersh Shefrin. Shefrin is the Mario L. Risk is generally categorized into one of three spheres: market, credit, or operational risk. The author analyzes the relationship between behavioral psychology and operational risk, which garners the least focus by risk management academics and practitioners.

Although market and credit risk are the spheres that attract the most attention by academics and practitioners, some of the most devastating risk management failures in history resulted primarily from operational risk. An example detailed in the book is the excessively high aspirations — in combination with groupthink, excessive optimism, and overconfidence — that affected Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and AIG in the global financial crisis.

These psychological pitfalls biases at the highest levels of management have the potential to put chief executive officers and chief investment officers in conflict with chief risk officers. Shefrin references a large number of biases discussed in the literature but focuses on only a handful of them.

He expounds at length on groupthink, which is the human tendency not to upset the status quo despite an obviously inaccurate consensus. Bayesian avoidance, defined as not updating the probabilistic judgments of risk as new information arrives, is another bias that receives significant attention.

Shefrin provides tips on improving risk management that build on understanding, recognizing, and countering such biases. Debiasing techniques can reduce the frequency with which risk management failures occur. They can be implemented on an incremental, continuous improvement basis. As support for the importance of using debiasing strategies, the author documents several major risk management failures, most occurring afterand predicts that serious failures will continue to occur in the future.

Organizational leaders should think long term by developing strong organizational cultures emphasizing risk management processes and behaviors. Shefrin favors using a process-pitfall framework that builds on a concept known as open book management OBM to minimize groupthink. The major processes central to OBM are standards, planning, incentives, information sharing, and operations.

This cultural mindset begins with senior executives actively supporting debate within the company and group leaders refraining from expressing their ideas until most group members have had an opportunity to express opinions.

Groups are especially vulnerable to groupthink when they rely on consensus and do not have preset rules and processes for decision making. OBM companies also recognize that there is a natural tendency for group members to refrain from sharing information.

When groups are large, OBM companies use breakout sessions with subgroups to engage in brainstorming before the whole group convenes to discuss a complex issue.

As with OBM, applying a risk management process to an organization involves asking direct and specific questions. Organizational culture is a medium through which risk drivers are transformed into outcomes. It induces group members to share information that they might be reluctant to disclose for fear of not appearing to be supportive. Polarization occurs because in the course of attempting to support other group members, some members set off a chain reaction that generates magnification.

The book effectively demonstrates that investment managers need to understand not only the quantitative tools, such as conditional value at risk, but also the psychology of risk management.

All posts are the opinion of the author.Chappelle, widely viewed as a leading teacher and writer in the field of operational risk, draws on her extensive experience working with and advising financial companies and regulators.

operational risk literature book reviews vs

The subject matter is heavy, but her tone is accessible and engaging. Law enforcement, health care and nonprofits also would be a good fit here, she says. The guide is both visual and conversational.

Helpful risk identification diagrams the risk wheel, process mapping, etc. Ariane Chappelle, Ph. She has been active in operational risk management since and is a former head of operational risk management at ING Group and Lloyds Banking Group. Chappelle runs her own training and consulting practice in risk management. Her clients include tier 1 financial organizations and international financial institutions. Hadden has more than two decades of experience as a journalist, editor and marketing consultant.

Thursday, December 17, Home Risk. January 30, Related Posts. Oversight: Spend Insights November November 19, November 3, Next Post.

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CRC Press, Modelling operational risk using Bayesian inference. Berlin: Springer, Kenett, Ron, and Yossi Raanan, eds. Operational Risk Management: a practical approach to intelligent data analysis. Risk Books, Rachev, and Frank J. Operational risk: a guide to Basel II capital requirements, models, and analysis. Operational risk management. Palgrave Macmillan, Operational risk: modeling analytics. Alexander, Carol, ed. Operational risk: regulation, analysis and management.

Pearson Education, Chorafas, Dimitris N. Operational risk control with Basel II: basic principles and capital requirements. Butterworth-Heinemann, Modeling, measuring and hedging operational risk. Hoffman, Douglas G. Managing operational risk: 20 firmwide best practice strategies. Mittnik, Stefan, and Irina Starobinskaya. Shevchenko, and Mario V. Shevchenko, Pavel V. Neil, Martin, and Norman Fenton. Migon, and Marina Silva Paez. Verrall, and Y. Giudici, Paolo, and Annalisa Bilotta.

Multivariate estimation for operational risk with judicious use of extreme value theory. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, The modelling of operational risk: experience with the analysis of the data collected by the Basel Committee.

Di Clemente, Annalisa, and Claudio Romano.Measuring and Managing Operational Risk pp Cite as.

FRM Part 2 - Operational Risk \u0026 Resiliency - Fundamental Review of Trading Book - SSEI

Taking this into account, the chapter describes and compares the different methods used to measure operational risk, both by practitioners and by academics: Loss Distribution Approach LDAscenario analysis and Bayesian methods. The majority of the advanced banks calculate capital requirement through LDA: the chapter focuses on how it works, analysing in detail the different phases of which it is composed and its applications, in particular the Extreme Value Theory EVTwhich is the most popular one.

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Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. Chapter First Online: 27 December This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Alexander, C. Bayesian methods for measuring operational risk. Discussion Papers in Finance. Henley Business School, Reading University. Google Scholar. Managing operational risks with Bayesian networks. Operational Risk: Regulation, Analysis and Management, 1, — Amin, Z.

Quantification of operational risk: A scenario-based approach. North American Actuarial Journal, 20 3— CrossRef Google Scholar. Aquaro, V. A Bayesian networks approach to operational risk. Operational risk. Supporting document to the New Basel Capital Accord.

The future of operational-risk management in financial services

International convergence of capital measurement and capital standards. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. Results from the loss data collection exercise for operational risk. Operational risk—Supervisory guidelines for the advanced measurement approaches. Bee, M. Copula-based multivariate models with applications to risk management and insurance. The Journal of Operational Risk, 3 23— Cavallo, A. Treatment of the data collection threshold in operational risk: case study with the lognormal distribution.

The Journal of Operational Risk, 7 1. Chavez-Demoulin, V. Advanced extremal models for operational risk p.Differentiating between a strategy review and an operational review is important. Simply put, an operational review is an in-depth look at the big picture, addressing communication issues, operating procedures, profitability issues, and other factors that affect a business, making it unstable.

A strategy review monitors progress of the company from a strategic level, making sure that the objectives are on track. The table breaks down the differences between strategy and operational reviews even further.

Holding regular strategy reviews is key to implementing your strategic plan, making the numbers, achieving your company goals, and, finally, making strategy a habit for everyone involved. These meetings give you the ability to manage activities that drive future results and hold people accountable for making sure that those activities happen.

Check out the following tips:. Schedule the monthly strategy meetings on the same day and at the same time each month. For example, schedule the meetings for the first Tuesday at 10 a. Invite individuals or heads of each department.

Operational Risk Measurement: A Literature Review

Ensure the perspectives at the table are diverse and cross-represented. Make the meeting mandatory — no exceptions. Having the meeting scheduled for the same day and time every month helps attendees work their schedules around it. Keep presentations to a minimum. Make sure to have a clock or watch in the meeting room, or assign a person to watch the time for agenda items.

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Start and end on time and stay on task with an agenda. See the sample agenda in the figure. The purpose of your meetings is for individuals and department heads to give a quick report on where they stand on the measurements identified on their scorecard. Restrict the meeting to reporting on measurements and nothing else, so you can stay on task and remain within the established limit. By following this process, everyone on the management team knows exactly where the company stands in terms of key measurements.

Separate strategy reviews from operational reviews. Establish a clear separation by 1 holding them on separate days or 2 making a clean break in the meeting from operations to strategy. Review strategy on a monthly or quarterly basis. Monthly can seem too frequent for review because strategy, by its nature, is long term. The solution is to rotate strategy themes and issues monthly. Review one theme per month, so each theme if there are three is visited quarterly.

Use open reporting to promote accountability, transparency, and teamwork. Use goal status and scorecards. Create issue-oriented meeting agendas. Collect strategic issues from your team ahead of time or revisit those that rolled over from the previous strategy review meeting. Pre-prep the issues in order to facilitate a truly strategic conversation.

If problems arise, convene a separate task force team meeting immediately afterward. Task force team meetings should be kept to a time limit, such as 30 minutes, and include only those people who are directly responsible for the measurements or those who can contribute to resolving the problem.

The primary purpose of this meeting is to brainstorm ideas and give the appropriate department heads some fresh thinking on how to approach the problem.

Everyone puts her best ideas on the table, and the manager in charge goes back and decides which ideas to implement. The following month, the department head reports back to the task force team on the actions he took to resolve the issue. Strategy Reviews vs. Operational Reviews.

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M3 provides consulting and facilitation services, as well as hosts products and tools such as MyStrategicPlan for leaders with big ideas who want to empower and focus their teams to achieve them.


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